Writing

Amol Kapoor

Simple DL Part 6: An End to End Example (with Code!)

June, 2021
TLDR
Overview

At this point, you hopefully have a high level understanding of some key deep learning principles: features, embeddings, losses, and how they all interact with each other. Unfortunately for me, some of my readers complained that this was not enough, and that without an end to end example that showed how the intuition could be applied, this whole project was meaningless. sigh. Even though I was really hoping to avoid digging into the specifics of a deep learning library, I think my readers are probably right.

There are countless starter examples for deep learning. Most of these implement a small neural network that can learn to classify handwritten numbers from 0 to 9 (aka MNIST). Many of these tutorials are quite good for understanding the particular syntax of a specific library, but they do a poor job of linking the code to some deeper understanding of ML. In part that is because the deeper understanding doesn't really exist -- the answer to 'why' is 'because'.

I wish I could say that this frustration goes away. It doesn't. I still feel like this when I read new ML papers.

In this tutorial, I'll instead do something totally different by teaching you how to implement a small neural network that can learn to classify handwritten numbers from 0 to 9. We're not going to touch code until the very end -- instead, we'll spend a lot of time trying to think through the problem in order to build some intuition of what we should be doing. All parts of the tutorial will be grounded in the previous SimpleDL lessons. Even though MNIST is a really well known dataset with countless 'solutions', I'll try to approach the task as if it was a real world learning problem.

The Problem

You work for the IRS. You have to deal with millions of tax filings -- over 150M, according to a random website called Google. That's a ton of filings. Most people do these on printed forms, filling in fields by hand. The techs over at the Department of Technology have scanned all the filings. Now they need to pull out all of the numbers.

One problem: the scans are all unparsed images.

We need to build a system that can convert images of numbers into actual numbers in some programming language or database, so that we can do more number crunching down the line. Unfortunately, there are tons of edge cases, which makes most statistical/geometric/traditional computer vision approaches obsolete. A human can probably figure out most of them, but humans are expensive and slow. Can we use deep learning?

Pictured: the US Federal Department of Technology logo.

Canonical Tasks

Features
Model
Loss
Review: Why MNIST?
Conclusion